String Theory: The Basic Idea

Our universe is far more complex than we can even imagine. When we try to observe the universe on bigger scales than it surprises us with new things every time. Same happens when we try to study the universe at its smallest scale. What is the world made of? Is one of the most important questions ever asked by any member of Homo Sapiens. Everyone now knows about atoms and molecules. We are well familiar with the word atom and its existence. Atom was thought to be the smallest block of matter, but now we know it is not and there are more than hundred subatomic particles. The particles mentioned in the previous article are the "letters" of all matter. The particles mentioned in the previous article are the smallest building blocks of matter, and they appear to have no further internal substructure.


Image Credit: Zidbits


String theory says, if we may perhaps examine the smallest building blocks of matter, i.e. photons, quarks and leptons with even greater accuracy, an accuracy with many orders of magnitude beyond our current technological ability, then we may find that each particle is not point like, but instead of point like it is comprised of a tiny one dimensional loop. This tiny one dimensional loop is known as a String. Like an infinitely thin rubber band, each particle contains an oscillating, vibrating, dancing filament known as a string. Different oscillations and vibrations will result in different particles. String theory adds the new minute layer of a vibrating loop to the previously known progression of atoms through neutrons, photons, quarks and leptons.

Modern physics has two scientific laws which are also its basic laws and these are quantum physics and general relativity. These two basic scientific laws deal with different fields of study in physics. Quantum physics deals with the very tiniest entities in the universe, on the other hand, relativity deals with the nature of the larger scales like planets, galaxies, and the universe itself as a whole. There is conflict between these two basic laws (click here to read the conflict). A most promising theory so far, to solve this conflict is string theory. String theory also gives rise to extra dimensions. A vast region of study among string theorists is on mathematical models of how extra dimensions could be connected to the dimensions in which we live. Particle physicists working at CERN’s LHC particle accelerator may soon join string theory to the reality.
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Anonymous said…
There is a lesson here, which is that neither mathematical beauty nor agreement with experiment can guarantee that the ideas a theory is based on bear the slightest relation to reality. Sometimes a decoding of the patterns in nature takes us in the wrong direction. Sometimes we fool ourselves badly, as individuals and as a society. There is no antidote for our ability to fool ourselves except to keep the process of science moving so the errors are eventually forced in to the light.
The risk of misinterpretation of results of experiments, dissemblance to unriddle the basics and inability to answer the fundamental questions results from very wrong assumptions. None of the fundamental questions that bothered the founding fathers of the physics of the twentieth century are solved today, most of them being drowned out by the current drivel. There is something basic we are all missing, some wrong assumptions we are all making. If this is so, then we need to isolate the wrong assumption and replace it with a new idea.
I am not a member of Science Society. They think it is not polite to tell them that they are wrong. Notwithstanding they are very wrong. The key to understand reality is to know what we measure as mass.
I assume that I am the only one who know. The knowledge (what we measure as mass, what is function of time and a quantum particle of time, what is time-space and a quantum time-space, what is speed of light and what is an average quantum speed of light, what is a source of entropy and what is gravity) allows me to understand Universe much better, but first and foremost floodlit the bare facts about a present-day picture of physics and astrophysics. It looks more like a surrealistic paintings or more like a collage.
You may see a big fat particle /”God’s particle”/ and sitting in rows millions of small particles, waiting for the mass. Equally you may fill vibrations of strings playing a symphony from the "big bang". Look carefully, it seems that cosmic dust is the source of this cosmic microwave background. Motes of cosmic dust are bobbing on strings and brans.There are other dimensions rolled into structures of a resilient time-space. Between strings and brans you may see particles of dark matter. If you use more imagination you may see particles of dark antimatter.
You may see not only an enormous amount of symmetry, very special but also supersymmetry. SUSY is a particle kind of symmetry which involve displacement in a quantum dimension. If you can convince yourself that force and substance (fermions who obey exclusion principle that two fermions of the same kind don’t like to do the same thing) are the same thing, just seen from different perspectives, you may achieved a new level of unity and coherence in your understanding of Nature.
All kind of particles are in vicious challenge with loop gravity. Also you may
see the basic blocks of Nature, few and profoundly simple, their properties fully specified by equations of high symmetry.
In a bottom left corner you may see a basketlike. Inside are concealed keys which may help us answer fundamental questions. Obviously you may just make out an overdeveloped silhouette standing on the lid. He looks like Albert Einstein and he waves us into a blind alley.
A look at history reveals that there are plenty of indications that particle physics has long been heading down a dead end. The cognitive dissonance with regard to such basic problems is an irritating phenomenon in contemporary science.
Rene Descartes said: “If you would be a real seeker after truth, it is necessary
that at least once in your life you doubt, as far as possible, all things.”
Galileo Galilei said: “All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them.” I did doubt and I discovered.