If we look around, we’ll definitely find some amazing physics almost behind everything of our universe, and a bursting balloon is surely in that list. With the help of a high-speed camera and a blade, a French physicist Sébastien Moulinet explored exactly what happens when a balloon bursts. Moulinet with his colleague Adda-Bedia studied that how a balloon burst in correlation with the tension set by the inflation level of balloon. They discovered that it is not just the internal pressure that bring it about to split in one of two ways but also the thickness and curvature of balloon membrane.
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When a particular inflation occurs, many cracks appear in the balloon.
This concept is not only applicable for balloon but also for glass. Moulinet says “The higher the stress, the more elastic energy is stored in the balloon, and then the more numerous the fractures need to be to release the stored energy". The balloon having flat sheets of latex clamped over a hole and punctured at the apex, once they'd reached a certain level of inflation, they exploded in an octopus-like shape. These tears of balloon spread out at a high pressures.
That is related to the research of Michael Marder of the University of Texas. Marder had become bewildered by the shape of tears left by the burst balloons but the Moulinet and Adda-Bedia explains those shapes in more detail in “The Physical Review Letters”.
The researchers determine that "Fragmentation occurs when the crack tip speed attains a critical velocity for which tip splitting becomes the sole available mechanism of releasing the stored elastic energy, given the general character of the fragmentation processes, this framework should be applicable to other crack networks in brittle materials."