The concepts or more precisely “theories”, that physicists have amassed over the centuries to illuminate our understanding of the cosmos are, in the end, paradoxical. When theories that clarify the movement of things here on our home Earth are applied to bigger astrophysical objects like galaxies, for instance, the rules fall apart. Here are few of the confusing paradoxes that presently govern physics:
1. So far the observational data shows the universe is expanding. Galaxies, for example, are stirring away from each other. But galaxies, counting our own Milky Way, are stationary in space. So it is not galaxies travelling through the emptiness of space that create movement, but space itself that is intensifying to thrust galaxies to and fro. Unfortunately, the formation of space is not a physical occurrence that has been verified, i.e., we cannot confirm that it is happening.
2. Depending on a method called redshift, we also observe that the farther away a body is from Earth, the faster it is travelling away from us. The universe, as we know it, is expanding at an accelerating level. But what energy or force is triggering this acceleration? According to the law of the conservation of energy, energy cannot be generated from nothing. This difficulty is "solved" by postulating dark energy, and whoever can first describe that how dark matter is causing this acceleration or what actually this dark matter is and how it works, has a Nobel Prize with their name already on it.
3. An important principle of Einstein's theory of relativity is that the universe is identical, i.e., it looks the same from any point of view if observed as a whole. But this is varying with observational data that goes against the Hubble Law asserting "the cosmological redshift of an object is linearly proportional to its distance from Earth." It is tempting to consider that the progresses made in the last hundred years have cleared up our sight of the cosmos and that apparently unified theories like the Big Bang cover all cosmic happenings. But modern cosmology still cannot provide any clarifications for thoughtful observable events.
You can read the issued paper at Physics arXiv.