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Newly Discovered Monster black hole from early cosmos challenges physics

An international group of astronomers have discovered a black hole nearly 12 billion times the mass of our Sun; their discovery was report in the journal Nature recently. The discovery of a supermassive black hole from the early universe is forcing scientists to rewrite physics. The supermassive black hole, which formed nearly 900 million years after the Big Bang, is the cause of a strong beam of bright material recognized as a quasar. Dr Fuyan Bian of the Australian National University, says "When we found this supermassive black hole we got very excited because we had found something that we never thought we could find," The research group, managed by Xue-Bing Wu at Peking University, detected the black hole and quasar -- acknowledged as SDSS JO100+2802 – using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), then followed up with three other different telescopes. With a brightness of 420 trillion that of our Sun's, this new quasar is seven times brighter than the most of distant quasar known so far. "This quasar is very unique. Just like the brightest lighthouse in the distant universe, its glowing light will help us probe more about the early Universe," says Xue-Bing Wu.
An artist's illustration of a monster supermassive black hole

This new discovery of the supermassive black hole fueling the quasar presents a mystery: how can such a massive black hole develop so rapidly in the early Universe? “It’s very hard to make these kinds of supermassive black holes very early in the universe. We need to find some new theory that can grow the supermassive black hole much faster than we thought" says Dr Fuyan Bian. Supermassive black holes are supposed to have formed in conjunction with massive galaxies in the early Universe but according to the present theories there must be a cautious matching of forces to form a black hole. As material accelerates under the force of gravity on the way to a black hole, its temperature rises, releasing a surprising amount of energy in the form of a quasar.

But the energy of the quasar essentially thrusts material away from the black hole so if it is excessively great it can stop material sinking onto to the black hole completely. These two forces must be well-adjusted, which bounds how fast a black hole can propagate. This point, united with the small amount of matter existing in the early Universe in the first place, make it tough for researchers to clarify how the supermassive black hole came into existence.

"With this supermassive black hole, very early in the Universe, that theory cannot work. It's time for a new hypothesis and for some new physics." says Dr Fuyan Bian.

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