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Higgs Boson Decays into Fermions- The Starting Point for a New Model of the Universe

Ketino Kaadze, a research associate working at Fermilab, said "We know that the Standard Model of physics that we have now does not explain some puzzles in nature. We know there has to be other models that can explain phenomena like dark matter and dark energy, and why we can have different generations of the same particle that are identical except for their mass. Finding the Higgs particle wasn't the end of the story. It was the starting point on a new horizon." A newly distributed study in the journal Nature Physics reports researchers have found proof that the Higgs boson, an essential particle suggested in 1964 and discovered in 2012, is the long sought-after particle accountable for providing mass to elementary particles. Constructing on the full data composed in 2011 and 2012, part of which was used to detect the Higgs boson's presence, scientists see proof that the Higgs boson directly decays into fermions. This also was projected in 1964 but not detected until after the Higgs boson was recognized in 2012. Kaadze said “The observation is key in reinforcing what is theorized about the Higgs boson and is a steppingstone to building on more extensive knowledge about how the universe works”

He added "We think that the Higgs boson is responsible for the generation of mass of fundamental particles. For example, the electrons acquire their mass by interacting with the Higgs boson. As electrons are not massless, they form stable orbits around nuclei, thus allowing the formation of electrically neutral matter from which the Earth and all of us are made. Even slight changes of the masses of fundamental particles around us would change the universe very drastically, and the Higgs boson is the centerpiece that ties it all together."

Kaadze, along with other researchers, was part of a group that watched for the Higgs boson decaying to a couple of tau leptons, fermions that are very hefty equals of electrons. A second group also hunted for the Higgs boson decaying into a duo of heavy fermions, termed beauty quarks. These two decay marks provide the highest discovery possible. Kaadze is one of the numerous scientists in Kansas State University's physics department deeply involved in study at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, or CERN. Their study is directed with the Compact Muon Solenoid, one of the Large Hadron Collider's two particle sensors that help researchers at CERN to hunt for proof for Higgs boson. The Higgs boson was the last key constituent needed to approve the Standard Model of particle physics: a low-energy model that describes the mechanisms of the cosmos at the lowest length scales. Struggles are presently ongoing to almost double the center-of-mass energy at CERN. Doing so will upsurge the capability to generate Higgs bosons. In turn, researchers can build on data in a struggle to describe the mysteries of the cosmos.

The photo at the top of the page displays galaxies in today's Universe that were supposed to have occurred only in the distant past. Professor Karl Glazebrook at Swinburne University said “We didn't think these galaxies existed. We've found they do, but they are extremely rare," The Swinburne scientists have related the galaxies to the ‘living dinosaurs' or Wollemi Pines of space - galaxies you wouldn't supposed to discover in today's world.

The galaxies in query look like disks, reminiscent of our own galaxy, but not like the Milky Way they are actually turbulent and are creating many young stars. Glazebrook said "Such galaxies were thought to exist only in the distant past, ten billion years ago, when the Universe was less than half its present age,"

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